ارزیابی تناسب اراضی بخشی ازدشت زنجان برای کشت گندم آبی با استفاده از راه‌کار امتیازات محدودیتی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه صنعتی شاهرود

2 دانشگاه زنجان

چکیده

در این پژوهش به‌منظور ترسیم روند تغییرات مکانی تناسب اراضی بخشی از دشت زنجان برای کشت گندم آبی، از لایه‌های مختلف 85 نقطه مشاهداتی تا عمق یک مترخاک، نمونه‌برداری انجام گرفت. پس از انجام آزمایش‌های لازم بر روی نمونه‌های خاک و جمع‌آوری اطلاعات اقلیمی، سطوح محدودیت ویژگی‌هایمختلف محاسبه و بر اساس جداول موجود به امتیازات محدودیتی تبدیل شدند. مجموع امتیازات محدودیتی هر نقطه، از طریق یک معادله‌ نمایی، بهمقادیر تابع پیوسته‌ عضویت تناسب اراضی تبدیل شد وبا استفاده از تخمین‌گر کریجینگ معمولی، مقادیر این تابع در تمامی منطقه، درون‌یابی و سپس پهنه‌بندی گردید. نتایج نشان داد که ویژگی‌های متوسط درجه حرارت دوره رشد و درصد ذرات درشت‌تر از دو میلی‌متر خاک، به‌ترتیب مهم‌ترین ویژگی‌های محدودکننده اقلیمی و خاکی در منطقه هستند. تجمع اثرات ویژگی‌های محدود‌کننده تناسب اراضی موجب بالا رفتن امتیازات محدودیتی و در نتیجه تنزل کلاس تناسب اراضی برخی از نقاط مشاهداتی، به‌ویژه در قسمت‌های شمال غربی منطقه مطالعاتی شده است. مقایسه نقشه منتج از درون‌یابی مقادیر تابع پیوسته عضویت تناسب اراضی با نقشه نقطه‌ای تناسب اراضی حاکی از آن بود که روند تغییرات مکانی تناسب اراضی برای گندم آبی در نقشه نخست، تدریجی‌تر و مشخص‌تر است. در مقایسه با روش‌های سنتی مرسوم در مطالعات تناسب اراضی، پیوسته‌سازی الگوی تغییرپذیری مکانی تناسب اراضی بر اساس دید فازی به تغییرات خاک، منجر به حصول نتایجی سازگارتر با ماهیت پیوسته پدیده‌های محیطی می‌گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Land Suitability Evaluation for Irrigated Wheat in Zanjan Plain Using Limitation Scores

نویسندگان [English]

  • Yaser Safari 1
  • Mohammad Amir Delavar 2
  • Zahra Noori 2
1 Shahrood University of Technology
2 University of Zanjan
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Land suitability evaluation (LSE) may be considered as a worldwide accepted procedure to achieve optimum utilization of the available land resources for sustainable agriculture. The common LSE procedures, like the widely accepted “A framework for land evaluation” presented by FAO, however, do not consider variability of soil quality parameters; whereas, the soil quality and its suitability for different uses are influenced by highly variable land management strategies. Therefore, assessing the spatial variability pattern of environmental variables and their accumulative effects on land suitability for specific crops, is the key for achieving to thoughtful land use planning for sustainable use. The present study was done aimed to evaluation of spatial variability of land suitability for irrigated wheat in Zanjan plain using accumulated limitation scores and geostatistics.
Materials and Methods: The study area is located in the southern part of Zanjan city, northwestern Iran, between the latitudes 36° 33′ and 36° 40′ N and the longitudes 48° 23′ and 48° 37′ E, covering an area of about 7000 ha. A total of 85 sampling locations were designed using a systematic sampling grid with an interval of 1000 m and consequently, soil samples at all sampling sites were collected from the depths of 0–25, 25-50, 50–75 and 75–100 cm. The soil samples were taken to the laboratory, where they were air-dried and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Prepared samples were subsequently analyzed for required soil properties in LSE (Sys et al., 1993) using standard methods. Besides, required climatic data for LSE were obtained from Znajan Synoptic Meteorological Station for a 50 years period (1961– 2011). Then, the limitation degrees for all of the important properties for wheat cropping were determined (Sys et al., 1993). Afterwards, the determined limitation degrees were converted to limitation scores using standard tables presented by Zhang (1989). Then, accumulated limitation scores were calculated for all locations and using an exponential equation, land-suitability membership scores were achieved. Finally, these scores were interpolated using ordinary kriging method in ArcGIS software (ver. 10.2; ESRI) and the final suitability map was produced.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the climatic conditions for irrigated wheat was relatively good; so that the region received just 1 limitation score arisen from the mean temperature of the growing cycle. On the other hand, among the studied soil properties, the content of coarse fragments made some serious limitations for wheat farming in the studied area; so that more than half of sampling points showed moderate to very severe limitations in respect of this property. This high observed limitation of coarse fragments may be attributed to the youthfulness of studied soils; because according to Soil Taxonomy, the studied soils are mainly classified as Entisols, which are poorly developed and immature soils maintaining their rock structure to some extent. Other studied soil properties, like soil texture and calcium carbonate equivalent content, made no or slight limitations for wheat farming in the studied soils. Accumulated effects of limiting properties led to elevated limitation scores in some sampling locations, especially in northwestern parts of the area and consequently, their suitability classes were decreased. Attributing the specific land suitability classes to each sampling location based on the calculated limitation scores revealed some sharp variability in suitability classes thorough the relatively small distances, which seems to be less compatible with the widely accepted generality of soil continuity. Totally, the spatial distribution map of land-suitability membership scores showed appreciable variability thorough the area. This may suggest that the studied soil properties have relatively high short-range variations, which is originated from the soil substantial characteristics or management practices. Comparison of the interpolated suitability map with the point map revealed that the spatial variability pattern of land suitability for irrigated wheat was more gradual and more obvious in interpolated map.
Conclusions: Compared with common conventional land suitability procedures, continuous pattern of land suitability variation based on the fuzzy viewpoint to the soil variability, lead to more compatible results with the continuous nature of environmental variables. However, due to the long and short-range variations of various soil properties thorough the studied area, appreciable variations in land suitability for wheat farming was observed. Controlling this highly variable suitability of studied lands for irrigated wheat farming needs precise and thoughtful management strategies.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Continuous maps, Geostatistics, Land evaluation
  • spatial distribution
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