تعیین حد بهینه عناصر غذایی و ارزیابی وضعیت تعادل تغذیه ای باغ های لیمو رقم لیسبون و نارنگی رقم پرل شهرستان دزفول با استفاده از روش DRIS

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه شهرکرد

2 دانشگاه ارومیه

چکیده

تغذیه متعادل یکی از عوامل مهم در افزایش عملکرد و بهبود کیفیت در محصولات باغی به ویژه مرکبات است. هدف از این پژوهش، تعیین حد بهینه عناصر غذایی و ارزیابی وضعیت تعادل تغذیه‌ای باغ‌های لیمو لیسبون و نارنگی پرل شهرستان دزفول بود. بدین منظور، به صورت تصادفی 30 باغ لیمو لیسبون و 30 باغ نارنگی پرل انتخاب و نمونه‌های برگ در اواخر شهریور ماه 1394 از برگ‌های غیربارده همان سال به صورت مرکب برداشت شد. باغ‌ها به دو گروه با عملکرد زیاد و کم تقسیم شدند. همه فرم‌های بیان و واریانس آنها در دو گروه و نسبت واریانس گروه عملکرد کم به زیاد در هر دو نوع باغ محاسبه گردید. سپس با استفاده از فرمول‌های کالیبراسیون دریس، شاخص‌های دریس برای عناصر غذایی در باغ‌های با عملکرد کم تعیین و شاخص تعادل غذایی (NBI) نیز محاسبه گردید. نتایج نشان داد که برای باغ‌های لیمو لیسبون مقدار بهینه عناصر غذایی پر مصرف N، P، K، Ca و Mg به ترتیب 97/2، 11/0، 85/1، 88/3 و 17/0 درصد و عناصر کم مصرف Fe، Zn، Mn، Cu و B به ترتیب 5/200، 9/24، 9/23، 8/68 و 9/32 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم و برای نارنگی پرل نیز مقدار بهینه غلظت عناصر غذایی پر مصرف N، P، K، Ca و Mg به ترتیب 97/2، 09/0، 57/1، 44/3 و 34/0 درصد و عناصر کم مصرف Fe، Zn، Mn، Cu و B به به ترتیب 2/167، 7/32، 1/26، 0/28 و 4/48 میلی‌گرم بر کیلوگرم به دست آمد. در مجموع بر اساس شاخص‌های DRIS ترتیب اولویت بندی عناصر غذایی برای باغ‌های لیمو لیسبون به صورت Fe>N>B>K>Mn>Ca>Mg=P>Cu>Zn و برای نارگی پرل به صورت B>Fe>K>Cu>N>Ca>Mg>Mn>Zn>P بود. شاخص تعادل تغذیه‌ای در کلیه باغ‌های با عملکرد پایین بالاتر از صفر بود که بیان‌گر عدم تعادل تغذیه‌ای در این باغ‌ها است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Determining the Optimum Level of the Nutrient Elements and Evaluating the Nutritional Status of Lisbon Lemon and Perl Tangerine in Dezful using DRIS Method

نویسندگان [English]

  • Salman Mirzaee 1
  • MirHassan Rasouli-Sadaghiani 2
  • Naser Miran 2
1 Shahrkord University
2 Urmia University
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Citrus is an important fruit crop cultivated in tropical regions of the world with immense nutritional value and advised on daily basis in diet. In Iran, it is cultivated in high reaches of northern and southern regions. The low productivity has been ascribed mainly to the nutritional health of the plantations which is the most concern among farmers. To plan fertilization efficiently, it is necessary to know the desirable concentration of macro and micro nutrient in tissues that are representative of the plant’s nutritional status. Traditionally, to determine the optimum fertilizer doses the most appropriate method was to apply fertilizer on the basis of soil test and crop response studies (Regar and Singh, 2014) which defied the synergistic and antagonistic effects in relative availability of different essential nutrients from soil. The foliar nutrient concentration is considered most pertinent and reliable method to judge the well-being of a tree as it represents the in situ condition in a holistic way and is a very powerful tool for nutritional diagnosis to assess deficiency symptoms and make fertilizer recommendations (Filho, 2004). Because of the dynamic nature of the leaf tissue composition, strongly influenced by leaf age, maturation stage, and the interactions involving nutrient absorption and translocation, the tissue diagnosis may be a practice of difficult understanding and utilization (Walworth and Sumner, 1987). The Diagnosis and Recommendation Integrated System (DRIS) developed by Beaufils (1973), expresses the result of foliar analysis through indices, which represent in a continuous numeric scale, the effect of each nutrient in the nutritional balance of plant. DRIS is advantageous as it presents continuous scale and easy interpretation; allows nutrient classification (from the most deficient up to the most excessive); can detect cases of yield limiting due to nutrient imbalance, even when none of the nutrient is below the critical level; and finally, allows to diagnose the plant nutritional balance through an imbalance index (Baldock and Schulte, 1996). Nutritional balance is an important factor in increasing the yield and improving the quality of horticultural products especially Citrus. Hence, the objective of this study was to determining the optimum level of the macro and micro nutrient elements and evaluating the nutritional status of Lisbon lemon and Perl tangerine in Dezful.
Materials and Methods: For this purpose, 30 Lisbon lemon and 30 Perl tangerine gardens were selected randomly from citrus gardens in Dezful. Leaf samples were collected from middle of terminal shoots of current year growth in the periphery of tree from in late September. Leaf samples were washed in detergent followed by tap water and distilled water. Leaves dried under shade and then dried in hot air oven at 70ºC for 48 hours. The dried leaves were grounded to fine powder by using mixer and stored in air tight butter paper bags for nutrient analysis. Kjeldahl method was followed to measure total nitrogen, and phosphorus was measured by vanado-molybdophosphoric yellow colour method using spectronic, while potassium was measured by flame photometric method. Other elements content was determined by atomic absorption system. The gardens were divided into two groups of low and high yielding. All forms expression and their variance into two groups and variance ratio the group of low to high yielding in tow type gardens were calculated. Then using DRIS calibration formula, DRIS index for nutrient elements with low yielding were determined and nutrient balance index (NBI) were calculated.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the optimum level in Lisbon lemon leaves were 2.97, 0.11, 1.85, 3.88 and 0.17% for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and 200.5, 24.9, 23.9, 68.8, 32.9 mg.kg-1 for Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu and B, respectively. In addition, the optimum level in Perl tangerine leaves were 2.97, 0.09, 1.57, 3.44 and 0.34% for N, P, K, Ca, Mg and 167.2, 32.7, 26.1, 28.0, 48.4 mg.kg-1 for Fe, Zn,Mn, Cu and B, respectively.
Conclusion: In general, based on DRIS indices priority on the macro and micro nutrients as Fe > N > B > K >Mn> Ca > Mg = P > Cu > Zn for Lisbon lemon and B > Fe > K > Cu > N > Ca > Mg >Mn> Zn > P for Perl tangerine were determined. The NBI of all gardens with low yielding was more than zero, indicating an imbalance nutritional in low yielding gardens.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Citrus
  • Critical level
  • Norm
  • yield
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