ارزیابی کیفیت خاک در بخشی از اراضی منطقه خشک و نیمه‌خشک دشت قزوین، ایران

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه علوم کشاورزی و منابع طبیعی گرگان

2 دانشگاه تهران

3 موسسه تحقیقات خاک و آب کشور

چکیده

ارزیابی کیفیت خاک اراضی کشاورزی امری ضروری برای موفقیت‌های اقتصادی و پایداری محیط‌زیست در مناطق درحال‌توسعه می‌باشد. در حال حاضر انواع بسیار زیادی از روش‌ها برای ارزیابی کیفیت خاک استفاده می‌شوند که هر کدام معیارهای متفاوتی را به کار می‌گیرند. با توجه به اینکه قزوین یکی از مهم‌ترین قطب‌های تولید کننده در منطقه و نیز ایران می‌باشد و نظر به اهمیت ارزیابی کیفیت خاک به‌عنوان شاخصی از کشاورزی پایدار و بهره‌برداری بهینه از منابع طبیعی، در این تحقیق کیفیت خاک بخشی از اراضی دشت قزوین با استفاده از شاخص کیفیت خاک تجمعی (Integrated quality index) و شاخص کیفیت نمرو (Nemero quality index) در ترکیب با دو روش انتخاب معیار کل مجموعه داده‌ها (Total data set) و حداقل مجموعه داده‌ها (Minimum data set) ارزیابی شد. مجموعاً 19 پارامتر خاک درروش TDS مورد استفاده قرار گرفتند. سپس این چهار ترکیب روش-های ارزیابی کیفیت خاک به‌منظور تعیین بهترین روش در منطقه مورد مطالعه از طریق مقایسه با عملکرد آنالیز شدند. نتایج نشان داد روش TDSIQI بیشترین همبستگی را در منطقه با میزان عملکرد دارد و نتایج حاصل از ارزیابی کیفیت خاک طبق این روش به ترتیب: 82/2% اراضی دارای درجه کیفیت خیلی خوب (I)،56/53% اراضی دارای درجه کیفیت خوب (II)،65/30% اراضی دارای درجه کیفیت متوسط (III) و 97/12% اراضی دارای درجه ضعیف (IV). همچنین روش TDSIQI بالاترین میزان همبستگی را با MDSIQI (9/77= R2) نشان داد؛ بنابراین روش MDS جایگزین خوبی برای سایر روش-های مطالعه کیفیت خاک می‌باشد و استفاده از آن می‌تواند موجب صرفه‌جویی در وقت و هزینه مطالعات گردد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Soil Quality Evaluation of Semi-arid and Arid Lands in Qazvin Plain, Iran

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sona Azarneshan 1
  • farhad khormali 1
  • fereydoon sarmadian 2
  • farshad kiani 1
  • kamran Eftekhari 3
1 Agriculture sciences and natural resources university of Gorgan
2 University of Tehran
3 Soil and water research institute
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Assessing the soil quality of agricultural land is essential for the economic success and sustainability of the environment in developing countries. Recently, there are many types of methods for assessing soil quality, each of them uses different criteria. Considering that Qazvin plain is one of the most important regions of agricultural products in Iran as well as Middle East, so the assessment of the soil status using quantitative models of soil quality can be used as an indicator of the status of soils in relation to sustainable agriculture, optimal utilization of resources Natural and better land management. Among the quantitative models of soil quality index, cumulative model integrated quality index (IQI) and Nomero (NQI) index can be mentioned. Therefore, this study intends to evaluate the best quantitative and quality index model by examining and comparing two methods of selecting the appropriate criteria, Total data set (TDS) and Minimum (MDS) and the second order soil quality index, integrated quality index(IQI) and Nomero (NQI) index in Qazvin plain lands.
Material and Methods: The study area with 25220 hectares is located in east of Qazvin Province. The average annual precipitation is 275 mm and the soil moisture and temperature regimes are Thermic, Dry xeric and Weak Aridic, respectively. A total of 76 samples from the depth of 0-20 cm of the soil surface were studied and based on uniformity, soil type and land use. In this study, four types of criteria that affect the quality of soil in terms of their performance, including: upper limit, lower limit, optimal limit and descriptive function were selected. To qualify (normalize), the upper limit, lower limit and peak limit were selected. In the following, the Total Data Set (TDS) and the Minimum Data Set (MDS) set of data were used. In the TDS method, all of the measured characteristics (a total of 19 physicals, chemical and biological properties of the soil) were considered. Then, the degree of soil quality indices was determined based on the combination of TDS and MDS criteria and the final NQI and IQI quality indices.
Result and Dissection: Comparison of soil types in the region showed that the Aridisols had good, moderate and poor quality (19.35% of soil with good quality, 67.76% with moderate quality and 12.94% with poor quality), Entisols have good and medium quality (53.21% of the soil with good quality and 46.79% with moderate quality) and Inceptisols have very good, good, moderate and poor quality (96.9% Soils with very good quality, 66.73% with good quality, 15.85% with moderate quality and 13.44% with poor quality).
According to the TDS standard and the NQI model, the soils with qualities I, II and III were 30.67%, 66.86%, 47.2% of the total soils of the area (lands with poor quality soil quality were not observed in TDSNQI method). Therefore, according to this method, Aridisols has a very good, good and medium quality (13.26% of the soil with a very good quality rating, 73.88% with a good quality and 12.84% with a moderate quality grade), Entisols with The good quality (100% of the soil with good quality degree) and Inceptisols have a very good and good quality (28.11% of the soil with a very good quality grade, 71.88% with a good quality grade). The results of quantitative soil quality by using the MDS standard method and IQI model were showed, soils with very good, good, moderate and poor degree are 2.45, 16.45, 48.93 and 46.3 percent of total land area respectively.
The results of the combination of the MDS and the NQI model also showed that the soils with a very good, good and average grade are 30.67%, 66.86% and 47.2% of the total land, respectively. Also, the results of the combination of the MDS and NQI model showed that the soils with very good, good and average quality are 30.67%, 66.86% and 47.2% of the total land area respectively. The results of the evaluation based on 4 indicators showed that good quality (II) was prevalent in the studied soils and accounted for about 47% of the total area studied in Qazvin plain lands. The map of distribution of soil quality degrees, the distribution of soil degrees is relatively similar to all of four combination methods, the choice of criteria and model. By examining the linear relationship between the indices obtained from TDS and MDS criteria and the IQI and NQI indexes, it is observed that the correlation coefficient is more and more reliable than the NQI model when used in the IQI model (R2 = 0.77). So the highest correlation coefficient we observed two methods for selecting the TDS and MDS criteria when using the IQI model. In general, the results of this study indicate a better performance of the MDS criteria than TDS.
Conclusions: Therefore, the main results of this study suggest using the IQI model with the MDS selection method as the starting point in the global standard path for future studies. Special attention should be paid to the criteria chosen by the MDS. In addition, conducting a series of research into the future in order to modify the MDSIQI model can make it more relevant to international standards.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • GIS
  • MDS
  • Soil quality index
  • TDS
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