اثر آبیاری سطحی و زیرسطحی با آب شور و مالچ بر عملکرد و بهره‌وری آب ذرت و توزیع املاح در خاک

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه تهران

چکیده

با توجه به محدودیت منابع آب در ایران و شرایط خاص جغرافیایی کشور، استفاده از شیوه‌های نوین آبیاری با مصرف کمتر آب امری بدیهی خواهد بود. با اعمال مدیریت صحیح در سیستم آب، خاک و گیاه می‌توان ضمن افزایش محصول، یک کشاورزی پایدار ایجاد کرد. بدین منظور در این پژوهش، 12 عدد لایسیمتر بتنی به ابعاد 25/1×2×2 متر استفاده شد تا اثر پوشش گیاهی (مالچ) روی راندمان مصرف آب و عملکرد محصول برای گیاه ذرت، تجمع نمک و همچنین میزان شستشوی نیترات در پروفیل خاک تحت دو سیستم آبیاری سطحی و آبیاری زیرزمینی تراوا موردبررسی قرار گیرد. برای آبیاری از آبی با هدایت الکتریکی dS/m 4 استفاده شد. طرح مذکور دارای دو تیمار اصلی (آبیاری سطحی و زیرزمینی تراوا) و دو تیمار فرعی (مالچ و بدون مالچ) با آزمایش به‌صورت فاکتوریل و در در قالب طرح بلوک‌های کامل تصادفی و در سه تکرار در مرکز تحقیقات آب و هواشناسی پردیس کشاورزی دانشگاه تهران واقع در شهر کرج در سال 1389 اجرا گردید. آبیاری سطحی بر اساس رطوبت موردنیاز خاک و آبیاری زیرزمینی تراوا روزانه به‌اندازه مقدار آب مصرف‌شده، صورت ‌گرفت. نتایج نشان داد که سیستم آبیاری زیرزمینی اثر بسیار معنی‌داری در کاهش آب مصرفی (53 درصد با مالچ و 40 درصد بدون مالچ) و افزایش عملکرد محصول (46 درصد در عملکرد دانه‌ای، 50 درصد در عملکرد علوفه‌ای و 12 درصد در وزن هزار دانه ذرت) نسبت به سیستم آبیاری سطحی دارد. همچنین آبیاری زیرزمینی با کاهش آبشویی نیترات و نمک، از شور شدن و آلودگی لایه‌های زیرین خاک جلوگیری نموده است. وجود مالچ در لایسیمتر ها نیز، اثر بسیار معنی‌داری بر کاهش آب مصرفی و عملکرد ذرت نشان داد. همچنین وجود مالچ در هر دو سیستم آبیاری زیرزمینی تراوا و سطحی، غلطت نمک در سطح خاک را به ترتیب 40 و 30 درصد کاهش داده است. درنتیجه در مناطقی که از آب شور برای آبیاری استفاده می‌کنند، سیستم آبیاری زیرزمینی تراوا عملکرد بهتری را نسبت به سیستم آبیاری سطحی حاصل می‌کند و استفاده از مالچ، می‌تواند باعث افزایش عملکرد و کاهش نیاز آبشویی شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

The Effect of Surface and Subsurface Irrigation with Saline Water and Mulch on Corn Yield, Water Productivity and Solute Distribution in the Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • abdolmajid liaghat
  • masoud Pourgholam amiji
  • pourya mashhouri nejad
tehran university
چکیده [English]

Introduction: With due attention to the limitation of water resources in Iran and specific geographical conditions of the country, using modern methods of irrigation with low water usage is inevitable. By applying suitable management in water system, soil and plant, while increasing product, we can establish a sustainable agriculture. Today, subsurface irrigation systems are used in various methods around the world, especially in the countries encountering water shortage. One of the newest methods is applying sponge plastic pipes such as tuporex which is installed in the area of plant root. Then, water with the pressure of 0/6-2 atmosphere flows inside it and by exuding, it dampens the area.
Materials and Method: For this purpose, in this study number of 12 concrete lysimeters with the dimension of 2×2×1/25 m was used to investigate the effect of vegetation (mulch) on the efficiency of water consumption and product function for corn, salt accumulation as well as the amount of nitrate wash on soil profile under two permeable subsurface irrigation and surface irrigation. For irrigation, a body of water with salinity of 4 ds/m was used. The plan includes two main treatments (permeable subsurface and surface irrigation) and two sub-treatments (mulch and without mulch) withfactorial experiment in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the College of Agriculture Research Campus, Tehran Universityof technology Located in Karaj, Iran in 2010. Surface irrigation was performed based on the moisturein the soil and permeable subsurface irrigation was performed per dayas much water as was consumed.. Lysimeters soil is prepared from farm soil and through examination, its appearance special weight was registered to be 1.4 gr per cm3 equals to 1400 kg per m3. The amount of nitrogen fertilizer (Urea) was applied on the lysimeters according to the region convention, was 300 kg per hectare (120 gram per each lysimeter(. A half of this amount was used at the time of cultivation and another half was used for the plant 60 days after cultivation; because the amount of water given in this type of system is higher.On the other hand due to the lack of vegetation, the significant amount of evaporated water and water productivity have decreased.
Results and Discussion: Results disclosed that the subsurface irrigation system has important effect in decreasing consumed water (58% with mulch and 40% without mulch) and increasing crop yield (46% in seed corn yield, 50% in forge yield and 12% in weight of one thousands seed corn) in comparison with the surface irrigation system. As well as the subsurface irrigation has prevented lower soil layer from contamination and being salty by decrease salt and nitrate leaching. Besidespresence of mulch in lysimeterhas shown important role in decreasing water consumption and seed corn yield. The important thing is that the highest yield in two type of performance, was recorded in subsurface irrigation treatment with mulch (TM) and this subject is so important when we remind that (TM) treatment had the least amount of water uses. Itmeans that with the least amount of water consumed the highest amount of product was obtained among the treatments.On the other hand, surface and non-mulching (SO) irrigation is expected to have the lowest yield per unit water consumption.
Conclusions: Also in both subsurface irrigation with preamble tube and surface irrigation system, existence of mulch caused to decrease salt concentration to 40% and 30% in soil surface respectively which makes it suitable for the areas facing water shortage. It can be concluded that, existence of mulches in the both subsurface irrigation with permeable tube and surface irrigation system causing water saving 13 and 23 percent, respectively and the rate of saving water in surface irrigation system with presence of mulch has also increased. Thus, it is recommended that some of the plant residuals, like mulch remain on the ground after harvest. The subsurface irrigation with permeable tube system has been prevented from washing nitrate to the depths of the soil. As a result, the environmental pollution caused by nitrate losses in this system is minimal and this system saves fertilizer. Also the concentration of salt solution in the soil profile in subsurface irrigation system was significantly lower than the salt concentration in surface irrigation. As a result in areas that use the saline water for irrigation, the subsurface irrigation with preamble tube confirm better function than surface irrigation system and use mulch can increase yield and reduce leaching.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Irrigation systems
  • Mulch
  • Nitrate leaching
  • Preamble Subsurface Irrigation
  • Salt Accumulation
1- Abbasi F., Naseri A., Sohrab F., Baghani J., Abbasi N. and Akbari A. 2015. Increase water use productivity. Organization of Agricultural Research, Training and Promotion. (In Persian).
2- Afshar H., Sadrghaen S.H. and Mehrabadi H.R. 2013. Evaluation of Application of Plastic Mulch on Water Used and Seed Cotton Yield. Journal of Water and Soil, 26(6): 1421-1427. (In Persian with English abstract)
3- Ayars J.E., Fulton A. and Taylor B. 2015. Subsurface drip irrigation in California-Here to stay?. Agricultural Water Management, 157:39-47.
4- Behbahani M.R., Mashhadi R., Rahimi K.A. and Nazarifar M.H. 2009. Study of super absorption polymer (SAP) stakasorb on moisture front of trickle and irrigation physical properties of soil. Iranian Journal of Irrigation and Drainage, 3(1): 91-100. (In Persian with English abstract)
5- Bezborodov G. A., Shadmanov, D. K., Mirhashimov R. T., Yuldashev T., Qureshi A. S., Noble A. D. and Qadir M. 2010. Mulching and water quality effects on soil salinity and sodicity dynamics and cotton productivity in Central Asia. Agriculture, ecosystems & environment, 138(1-2): 95-102.
6- Blanco F. F., Folegatti M. V., Gheyi H. R. and Fernandes, P. D. 2008. Growth and yield of corn irrigated with saline water. Scientia Agricola, 65(6): 574-580.
7- Burt C.M., Mutziger A., Howes D.J. and Solomon K.H. 2002. The effect of stubble and mulch on soil evaporation. Irrigation Training and Research Center, Bio Resource and Agricultural Engineering, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo.
8- Camp C.R. 1998. Subsurface drip irrigation: A Review. Transactions of the ASAE, 41:1353-1367.
9- Ebrahimian H., and Batoukhte F. 2017. Technology needed to improve irrigation water productivity. Secretariat of the Special Commissions of Iran Chamber. (In Persian).
10- Heydari Nia, M., Naseri A. and Boroomandnasab S. 2016. Effect of management of wheat residues and irrigation with saline water on spring maize yield and salinity changes in soil profile. Journal of Water Research in Agriculture, 30(3): 285-299. (In Persian).
11- Johnson R. and Cody B.A. 2015. California Agricultural Production and Irrigated Water Use. Congressional Research Service Report, (R44093).
12- Latify S., Yousefi A. and Jamshidi, Kh. 2015. Effect of Living Mulch Application on Yield and Yield Components of Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) Cultivars and Weed Control. Journal of Agricultural Science and Sustainable Production, 25(7):33-45. (In Persian with English abstract)
13- Mohammad Abadi A.M. and Ezat Abadi M.A. 2016. Introduction of subsurface irrigation method with cement pipes in pistachio gardens. Pistachio Research Institute. (In Persian).
14- Pang H. C., Li Y. Y., Yang J. S. and Liang Y. S. 2010. Effect of brackish water irrigation and straw mulching on soil salinity and crop yields under monsoonal climatic conditions. Agricultural Water Management, 97(12): 1971-1977.
15- Qin W., Hu C. and Oenema O. 2015. Soil mulching significantly enhances yields and water and nitrogen use efficiencies of maize and wheat: a meta-analysis. Scientific reports, 5.
16- Sedaghati N., Hosseinifard S. and Mohammadi, M.A.A. 2012. Comparing Effects of Surface and Subsurface Drip Irrigation Systems on Growth and Yield on Mature Pistachio Trees. Journal of Water and Soil, 26(3):575-585. (In Persian with English abstract)
17- Sepaskhah A.R., Tavakoli A.R. and Mousavi S.F. 2006. Principles and Applications of Deficit Irrigation. Iranian National Committee on Irrigation and Drainage (INCID), Tehran.
18- Seyed Dorraji S., Golchin A. and Ahmadi Sh. 2010. The Effects of Different Levels of a Superabsorbent Polymer and Soil Salinity on water Holding Capacity with three Textures of Sandy, Loamy and clay. Journal of Water and Soil, 24(2):306-316. (In Persian with English abstract).
19- Zhao Y., Pang H., Wang J., Huo L. and Li, Y. 2014. Effects of straw mulch and buried straw on soil moisture and salinity in relation to sunflower growth and yield. Field Crops Research, 161: 16-25.
20- Zhao Y., Wang J., Li, Y. and Pang H. 2013. Reducing evaporation from phreatic water and soil resalinization by using straw interlayer and plastic mulch. Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 29(23): 109-117.