عنوان مقاله [English]
Introduction: Runoff estimation is one of the main concerns of hydrologists and plays a key role in various engineering calculations and designs. Many factors such as climate, topography, soil properties, land cover, etc, are involved in producing surface runoff. Land use and land cover changes have a direct impact on the hydrological cycle in the ecosystem. The most common model of surface runoff estimation is the curve number model developed by the US Soil Conservation Service (SCS-CN). Accurate estimation of its important parameters increases its precision and performance. Land use is one of the most important parameters of this model.Remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) technologies are used in order to increase its speed and accuracy of estimation. One of the problems that have occurred in the Kashaf-Rood Basin is the extensive land use changes that may cause changes in peak discharge and surface runoff volume. In this study, due to the great importance and impact of land cover change on increasing flood risk, the effects of land use change over 28 years (from 1987 to 2015) on flood hydrograph characteristics were investigated.
Materials and Methods: The Kashaf-Rood basin is a part of the Ghara-Ghum basin. The total area of the basin is 16779 square kilometers with the highest and lowest elevation of 3235 and 378 meters above sea level, respectively . The length of the Kashaf-Rood River from the highest point to the outlet of the basin is about 374 km and its average and gross river slope are 0.0028 and 0.0043 m/m, respectively. The digital elevation model was used to calculate the topographical properties, hydrological properties and geometrical corrections required on satellite images. In this research, the data of the Global Digital Elevation Model (ASTER) with a spatial accuracy of 30 m was used. Also, the soil hydrologic group map prepared in Ghara-Ghum water resources balance studies was used. Since no land use change occurs in the short term and can be detected at long intervals, a 28-year interval was chosen for satellite imagery. In general, five images of Landsat satellite are needed for full coverage of the Kashaf-Rood Basin. For the oldest data, Landsat 5 images and for the latest data, Landsat 8 images were used. ERDAS IMAGINE 2014 software was used to digitally process satellite images. The images were classified in three methods: The Minimum distance, Mahalanobis distance and the Maximum Likelihood. In order to select the appropriate method, after applying different classification algorithms for the image of 2015, the accuracy of their classification was evaluated and, the image of 1987 was also classified based on the selected method. By combining soil hydrological group and land use map derived from Landsat satellite imagery using ArcGIS 10.3 software, the curve number maps for 1987 and 2015 were prepared. In the present study, the US soil conservation service standard curve number method (SCS-CN) was used to calculate the amount of rainfall and losses in the HEC-HMS model. For the calibration of the HEC-HMS model, four flood events at the bridge of Khatun Kashaf-Rood hydrometric station with relatively concomitant precipitation were selected. Three flood events were used for calibration and one flood event for validation.
Results and Discussion: The images were classified into three methods: The Minimum distance, Mahalanobis distance, and the Maximum Likelihood. Comparing the results of these three methods showed that their overall accuracy in evaluating and identifying land use was 78.5, 83.7 and 87.3, respectively. Thus, the maximum likelihood algorithm was used to classify the images and the image of the year 1987 was classified with this method. Ten land use classes were identified in the study area. The results showed that during the 28 years of study, the area of rocky lands and rangelands did not change. The highest percentage of change was due to water zones, poor rangelands and residential lands, which increased by 189, 143 and 50 percent, respectively. The highest amount of increase in the area occurred in the poor rangelands, which 1514 km2, and the highest decrease occurring in moderate rangelands which is 1278 km2. By combining soil hydrological group maps and land use maps in ArcGIS software and using standard tables, the curve number maps for 1987 and 2015 were prepared. The weighted average of the curve number in the mean moisture conditions for 1987 and 2015 was 77.5 and 78.4 units, respectively. After performing the calibration and validation steps, the HEC-HMS hydrological model was used to investigate the impact of land-use change on the flood hydrograph of the Kashaf-Rood River between 1987 and 2015. According to the results, in all four events which were studied, land-use changes have increased the peak of discharge and the flood volume over the 28 years of study. On average, the peak flood discharge in 2015 was 15.2% higher than the peak flood discharge in 1987, and similarly, the flood volume increased by 13.7% during the study period.
Conclusion: In conclusion, it can be derived that in recent decades, land-use changes which were caused by human interference, affected the flood characteristics and increased the risk of flooding in the Kashaf-Rood river. Therefore, land use must be managed and prevented further destruction of natural resources to prevent flooding in the area.