مقایسه دو سامانه آمریکایی (2014) و جهانی (2015) در رده‌بندی خاک‌های مناطق ایرانشهر و دلگان، استان سیستان و بلوچستان

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکتری گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

2 استاد، گروه علوم خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه شهید باهنر کرمان

3 استادیار مهندسی طبیعت، دانشکده‌ی منابع طبیعی، دانشگاه جیرفت

چکیده

طبقه­بندی خاک، ابزاری مفید برای فهم و مدیریت صحیح خاک­ها می­باشد. در این پژوهش، مقایسه دو سامانه رده­بندی آمریکایی و جهانی در ارتباط با خاک­های خشک و فراخشک منطقه ایرانشهر و دلگان واقع در استان سیستان و بلوچستان مورد بحث قرار گرفته است. پس از تفکیک سطوح ژئومورفیک در این منطقه، تعدادی خاکرخ در هر کدام حفر و تشریح گردید. در نهایت تعداد 10 خاکرخ شاهد با در نظر گرفتن تنوع خاکی (خاک­های جوان، گچی، آهکی، شور و سدیمی)، برای این مطالعه انتخاب شد. افق­های مشخصه کلسیک، جیپسیک، انهیدریتیک، آرجیلیک، ناتریک و سالیک پس از مطالعات صحرایی و نتایج آزمایشگاهی شناسایی شدند. بر اساس یافته­های این پژوهش، اضافه کردن زیرگروه­های جدید یرمیک توری­فلوونتز، یرمیک توری­اُرتنتز، کلسیک جیپسی­آرجیدز، جیپسیک ناترسالیدز، ناتریک جیپسی­سالیدز، انهیدریتیک جیپسی­سالیدز و انهیدریتیک کلسی­سالیدز به سامانه رده‌بندی آمریکایی از یک سو و افزودن توصیف‌کننده انهایدرایت و هم‌چنین توصیف‌کننده اکوییک برای خاکی با گروه مرجع سولونچاک در سامانه رده‌بندی جهانی، می­تواند در همبستگی بالاتر این دو سامانه رده­بندی مؤثرتر باشد. از طرفی، درصد کربنات کلسیم معادل برای افق کلسیک در ارتباط با خاک­هایی با بافت درشت و سنگریزه به مانند سامانه رده­بندی آمریکایی، برای سامانه رده­بندی جهانی نیز پیشنهاد می­شود. هم­چنین برای سامانه رده‌بندی آمریکایی، تعریف افق سالیک، مشابه آنچه که در سامانه رده­بندی جهانی آمده توصیه می­گردد. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که سامانه رده­بندی جهانی برای تفسیر خاک­های شور، سدیمی، گچی، آهکی و جوان، به‌دلیل استفاده از توصیف‌کننده­های مختلف و انعطاف‌پذیری بالاتر در انعکاس خصوصیات خاک­ها کارایی بیشتری دارد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparison of Soil Taxonomy (2014) and WRB (2015) in Classification of Soils in Iranshahr and Dalghan Regions, Sistan and Baloochestan Province

نویسندگان [English]

  • saleh Sanjari 1
  • Mohammad Hady Farpoor 2
  • M. Mahmoodabadi 2
  • S. Barkhori 3
1 Ph.D. Student Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
2 Professor Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran
3 Assistant Professor, Nature Engineering Department, Faculty of Natural Resources, University of Jiroft, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction Increasing demand for an international classification system as a unique communication tool in soil science has caused development of different systems.  Like many other countries, Soil Taxonomy and WRB are the most popular soil classification systems in Iran. Genetic and morphologic soil properties are used for soil classification in both systems. However, correlation of the two systems and efforts to harmonize them have been a major concern among soil scientists. Comparing Soil Taxonomy and WRB in gypsiferous and calcareous soils of central Iran, Sarmast et al. (13) reported that WRB using various qualifiers is more effective than Soil Taxonomy. Since no study on soils of Iranshahr and Dalghan Regions located in Sistan and Baloochestan Province has performed and/or no reported data is available, the present research was performed to: 1) study morphological, physical, and chemical soil properties in the area, 2) classify soils based on Soil Taxonomy (2014) and WRB (2015) systems, 3) compare the two systems for soil description in Iranshahr and Dalghan regions as a part of Sistan and Baloochestan Province, central Iran.
Material and Methods: The study area starts from Iranshahr (590 m asl) in the center of the province and extends to Dalghan (390 m asl) in west. Alluvial fan, pediment, playa, and hill were among different landforms identified using field studies, topography maps (1:50000), and Google Earth image observations. To cover the maximum soil variations in the area, 10 representative pedons were selected, described, and sampled.
Results and Discussions: Calcic, gypsic, anhydritic, argillic, natric, and salic horizons identified after field work and laboratory analysis. Results of the study showed that addition of Yermic Torrifluvent, Yermic Torriorthent, Calcic Gypsiargid, Gypsic Natrsalid, Natric Gypsisalid, Anhydritic Gypsisalid, Anhydritic Calcisalid subgroups to Soil Taxonomy system from one hand, and addition of anhydrite and aquic (for Solonchak reference soil group) qualifiers to WRB system from the other hand, causes a higher correlation and more harmonization between the two classification systems. Meanwhile, the minimum percentage of calcium carbonate equivalent necessary for calcic horizon identification in coarse textured soils including gravel in Soil Taxonomy is also suggested to be added to WRB system. Besides, requirements of salic horizon in WRB system is recommended to be added to Soil Taxonomy. At the same time, soil names in WRB system provide more information and data about soil properties and characteristics in young soils (such as yermic qualifier showing desert pavement) compared to Soil Taxonomy. Soil Taxonomy is not able to properly classify saline soils of arid regions down to subgroup level which is a weak point for this system. That is why newly added Gypsic Natrsalids is suggested for soils with natric, gypsic, and salic horizons in the upper 100 cm of the soil. On the other hand, the requirements of salic horizon in WRB system (the minimum EC content of 15 dS/m and the EC multiplied by the horizon thickness of more and/or equal to 450) are also suggested for Soil Taxonomy.
Conclusion: Results of the study for both saline and sodic soils show more capability of WRB system compared to Soil Taxonomy to classify soils. From soil management point of view, natric horizon causes more negative effects compared to salic horizon because Na disperses the soil particles and destroys soil structure and sodic soils need more practices to be improved compared to saline soils. Results for gypsiferous soils also show more capability of WRB system compared to Soil Taxonomy because gypsum content which is important for gypsiferous soils management is properly concerned in WRB system. However, lack of anhydritic horizon in WRB seems to be a weak point for this classification system. That is why it is suggested to be added to WRB (13). Since Soil Taxonomy does not use independent abbreviations for anhydritic horizon compared to gypsic horizon, the Ba and Baa abbreviations are also suggested for Soil Taxonomy to be added.
 

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Iran
  • Calcareous
  • Gypsiferous
  • Saline
  • Soil correlation
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