بررسی مقایسه‌ای اثر تیمارهای آلی، زیستی و اسید‌زا بر قابلیت دسترسی عناصر غذایی در یک خاک آهکی

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانش‌آموخته کارشناسی‌ارشد گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

2 استادیار گروه علوم و مهندسی خاک، دانشکده کشاورزی، دانشگاه کردستان

چکیده

علی‌رغم وجود میزان فراوان عناصر غذایی در خاک‌های آهکی، فرم قابل جذب این عناصر کمتر از میزان لازم برای رشد و نمو بهینه گیاهان است. از طرفی این خاک‌ها، معمولاً در اقلیم خشک و نیمه خشک با کمیمواد آلی مواجه هستند که کمبود قابلیت دسترسی عناصر را تشدید می‌نماید. بنابراین کمبود عناصر غذایی یکی از عوامل مهم محدود کننده تولید محصول در این خاک‌هاست. پژوهش‌های زیادی در رابطه با افزایش قابلیت دسترسی عناصر غذایی در خاک‌های آهکی انجام شده است اما پژوهشی که تمام این روش‌ها را با هم مقایسه کند و بهترین راهکار را پیشنهاد نماید تاکنون انجام نشده است. بنابراین این پژوهش با هدف افزایش قابلیت دسترسی عناصر غذایی در یک خاک آهکی با کاربرد نه تیمار شامل، شاهد (خاک بدون تیمار) (Blank)، خاک + اسید هیومیک (HA)، خاک + اسیدسولفوریک (H2SO4)، خاک + تیوباسیلوس (T)، خاک + گوگرد (Sº)، خاک + گوگرد + تیوباسیلوس (Sº+T)، خاک + ورمی‎کمپوست (VC)، خاک + ورمی‎کمپوست + تیوباسیلوس (VC+T) و خاک + گوگرد + ورمی‎کمپوست + تیوباسیلوس ((Sº+VC+T، هر کدام در 3 تکرار بـه مـدت 90 روز در شرایط آزمایشگاه مورد انکوباسیون قرار گرفت. آنالیز نتایج این پژوهش با بهره‌گیری از آمار کلاسیک نشان داد که به دلیل ظرفیت بالای بافری خاک‌های آهکی و پیچیده بودن عواملی که حلالیت کانی‌ها و قابلیت دسترسی عناصر غذایی در این خاک‌ها را کنترل می‌کنند، کاربرد منفرد تیمارهای مورد بررسی اثر چشم­گیری بر قابلیت دسترسی عناصر غذایی در این خاک‌ها را ندارند، اما اثر ﺗﻴﻤﺎر Sº+VC+T در افزایش شاخص­های مورد بررسی به طور معنی‌داری بیش از اثر تیمارهای Sº+T و VC+T ﺑـﻮد. بنابراین ﺑﻪ ﻧﻈﺮ ﻣﻲرﺳﺪ، کاربرد توأم تیمارهای آلی، بیولوژیک و گوگرد عنصری که به‌طور همزمان تأمین کننده منبع انرژی و کربن برای جامعه میکروبی خاک و سبب کاهش pH خاک می­شوند، به‌گونه چشم‌گیری می‌توانند موانع بر سر راه افزایش قابلیت جذب عناصر غذایی را در خاک‌های آهکی رفع نمایند. بنابراین کاربرد همزمان تیمار کودهای آلی، گوگرد عنصری و باکتری تیوباسیلوس ((Sº+VC+T می‌تواند یک رویکرد امیدوارکننده­ در راستای افزایش حلالیت عناصر غذایی در خاک‏های آهکی باشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Comparative Survey of Organic Matter, Biological and Acid-causing Treatments Effects on Availability of Nutrient Elements in a Calcareous Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • Shno Haghighi 1
  • Zahed Sharifi 2
1 M.Sc. Graduate Student Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Assistant Professor, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Calcareous soils are described as soils containing quantities of calcium carbonate which have an enormously effect on the soil properties (physical, consisting of soil water relations and soil crusting, or chemical consisting of the availability of plant nutrients) and plant growth. Calcareous soils arise clearly in arid and semi-arid areas due to rare precipitation and little leaching. It has been evaluated that these soils contain over one-third of the world's surface zone and their CaCO3 content ranged from a few to 95%. Calcareous soils faced many challenges such as shortage of organic matter, low structure stability, low water holding capacity, low CEC, high pH, surface crusting and cracking and great infiltration rate which cause loss of essential plant nutrients via leaching or deep percolation. Another problem in calcareous soils is low availability of plant nutrients particularly phosphorous and micronutrients specially zinc, iron and manganese, and a nutritional imbalance between elements such as potassium, magnesium and calcium. Although a calcareous soil is dominated by free lime, it could also incorporate large quantities of iron, aluminum, and manganese. These metals provide more strong sorption sites for phosphorus and are mostly more significant in controlling phosphorus solubility in calcareous soils than calcium carbonate itself. Under such severe conditions, desired yield levels are difficult to attain. Calcareous soils lack the organic matter required for optimal crop yield. Therefore, numerous studies have made efforts to increase the availability of nutrients in the soils through different treatments. Common methods for dealing with these deficiencies, is the use of chemical fertilizers that have the risk of environmental pollution in addition to the high cost and low efficiency. Oxidation of sulfur leads to sulfuric acid formation which can decrease the soil pH and increase dissolution of insoluble soil minerals and release of essential plant nutrients. Furthermore, the addition of organic amendments improves the soil chemical and physical properties, initiates nutrient cycling, and provides a functioning environment for vegetation.
Materials and Methods: The objective of this research was to increase solubility of nutrient elements in a calcareous soil considering nine treatments (i.e., control (Blank), Soil + Humic Acid (HA), Soil + Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4 ), Soil + Thiobacillus (T), Soil + Sulphur (Sº), Soil + Sulphur + Thiobacillus (Sº +T), Soil + Vermicompost (VC), Soil + Vermicompost + Thiobacillus (VC+T) and Soil + Sulphur + Vermicompost + Thiobacillus (Sº +VC+T)). The experimental design was factorial arrangement in randomized complete block, with all the treatments replicated three times. All the treatments were incubated under the laboratory condition for 90 days in 25 ± 2 °C and 70% of water holding capacity by distilled water. During the incubation period, the moisture of the samples was kept at 70% FC by daily addition of deionized water based on weight loss. At the end of incubation period the pH value, electrical conductivity (EC), available form of macro elements (K, P and N) and micro elements (Zn, Mn, Fe and Cu) were determined in all treatments by standard methods.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that, the soil pH value significantly decreased in Sº+T and Sº+VC+T treatments, in compared to the blank. While, the EC of these treatments significantly increased with respect to the blank. The results also showed that most of the treatments have been able to increase the solubility of the nutrients. However, the effect of Sº +VC+T treatment on increasing the availability of studied soil nutrients and decreasing pH value was more significant than the other treatments.
Conclusion: Analysis of  the results obtained from this study using classical statistic methods showed that applying a single treatment cannot remove all obstacles to increase nutrient availability in calcareous soils. This may be attributed to high buffering capacity of calcareous soils and complexity of factors which control mineral solubility and nutrient availability. While, treatments that simultaneously provide soil organic matter and lower pH (such as Sº+VC+T) can significantly remove barriers to increase nutrient uptake in these soils. As a result, the simultaneous application of organic fertilizers, elemental sulfur and Thiobacillus bacteria can be a promising approach to increase the solubility of nutrients in calcareous soils and to increase the quantitative and qualitative growth of plants in these soils.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Calcareous soils؛ Humic acid؛ Sulphur؛ Thiobacillus bacteria؛ Availability of nutrient elements
  • Vermicompost
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