بررسی آزمایشگاهی نقش پوشش گیاهی در تولید رواناب در کرت‌های کوچک تحت چرخه انجماد-ذوب

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 تربیت مدرّس

3 تربیت مدرس

چکیده

یکی از فرآیندهای تأثیرگذار بر تولید رواناب، چرخه انجماد-ذوب است که بررسی آن با توجه به شرایط توپوگرافی و اقلیمی خاص کشور برای مهار اثرات منفی آن اجتناب­ناپذیر می‌باشد. پژوهش حاضر با هدف بررسی تأثیرپذیری رواناب تولیدی از اثر پوشش گیاهی در کرت­های آزمایشی کوچک و تحت یک چرخه انجماد-ذوب و در شرایط شبیه­سازی باران انجام پذیرفت. برای شبیه­سازی شرایط منطقه بدرانلو واقع در 10 کیلومتری غرب شهرستان بجنورد، با شیب عمومی 20 درصد، چرخه­ای شامل سه روز انجماد و دو روز ذوب و یک واقعه باران با شدت 72 میلی­متر بر ساعت و دوام 30 دقیقه در سه تیمار پوشش گیاهی منطقه مادری خاک صورت پذیرفت. آزمایش­های مربوطه در سه تکرار و در مقایسه با کرت­های آزمایشی شاهد پس از رویاندن دو گونه گندمی و یک گونه علفی در اتاقک­های رشد تا تکمیل نسبی مراحل فنولوژیک و در معرض قرار دادن آن­ها در شرایط انجماد-ذوب انجام گرفت. نتایج پژوهش نشان داد که تیمار گونه­های Medicago sativa، Agropyron trichophorum و Lolium prenne به‌ترتیب 9/2، 7/2 و 6/67 درصد حجم رواناب را نسبت به تیمار شاهد کاهش (05/0>P) دادند. طبق مشاهدات­، قسمت عمده ریشه در دو گونه گندمی A. trichophorum و L. prenne برخلاف گونه پهن‌برگ M. Sativa به­صورت سطحی بوده و احتمالاً سبب چسبندگی بیش‌تر ذرات خاک­دانه و اصلاح ساختمان خاک سطحی شده و در نتیجه میزان تولید حجم رواناب کاهش داشته است. هم­چنین نتایج به­دست آمده بر نقش حفظ و یا احیاء پوشش گیاهی بومی منطقه مادری خاک در مدیریت رواناب تأکید دارد.

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