عنوان مقاله [English]
Barley could be grown under low-input and harsh conditions because of its wide adaptability to drought, and heat stresses. Nonetheless, the water stress leads to yield reduction when drought stress occurs during stem elongation and grain filling stages. In rainfed areas, water and heat stress occur together, specifically after anthesis, amplifying the adverse effects of water stress via disrupting water uptake of crops. In this regard, measurement of canopy temperature (Tc) by infrared thermometry is a non-destructive method that can effectively characterize the water status of plants. There is a linear relation between Tc and transpiration, which increases upon stomata closure. Since stomata is very sensitive to environmental variations and moisture reduction in the plant and it is very difficult to measure, therefore, Tc is the preferred factor to determine the crop water status. The Tc was used to calculate the practical Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) by Idso et al. (1981) and Jackson et al. (1981). Dold et al., (2017) reported a positive significant correlation between CWSI and transpiration, daily soil water content, and plant production. Negative significant correlations between CWSI and pure photosynthesis rate, transpiration, and stomatal conductance were also reported. This study was aimed to: (i) assess the water stress effects on dryland barley genotypes using Tc, (ii) identify the upper limit for Tc affecting performance and reducing barley grain yield, (iii) determine the critical point of water stress, and (iv) apply CWSI to select the most suitable barley genotypes for both rainfed and supplemental irrigation conditions.
Materials and Methods
To determine the crop water stress index (CWSI) and assess water status of dryland barley genotypes, an experiment was carried out in a split plot arrangement based on randomized complete block design with 15 genotypes in three replications at the Dryland Agricultural Research Institute, Maragheh (46° 45ʹ E, and 37° 26ʹ N), Iran in the 2015-2018 cropping seasons. The main plots included rainfed (as stress conditions), and supplemental irrigation (two times: 50 mm irrigation in the sowing time and 30 mm irrigation in the booting stage) as non-water stress conditions. The sub-plots included 15 barley genotypes (GaraArpa, 71411, Abidar, Ansar, ARM-ICB, ChiCm/An57//Albert, Dobrynya, Kuban-06, Makooei, Redical, Sahand, Sahand/C-25041, Sararood1, Ste/Antares//YEA762 and Valfajr). The barley genotypes were planted by Wintersteiger planter in six-row plots with 8 m long and 1.20 m wide (20 cm row spacing). The sowing rate was 380 seeds per m2 based on the thousand kernel weight (TKW) of each genotype. Seeds were treated by Penconazole fungicide. The planting dates were October 4, 2015, and October 7, 2017. In each plot, two canopy temperatures (Tc) were measured using infrared thermometer Model A-1 in six crop reproductive stages from the half of ear emerged above flag leaf ligule stage (GS55) to the soft dough stage (GS85). Measuring time was between 1:00 to 2:00 pm.
Results and Discussion
The results indicated that the upper baseline for non–transpiring of dryland barley genotypes (Tc-Ta = 0.0008VPD + 5.89; VPD: vapor pressure deficit) was 5.9 °C (ranged from 5.5 to 6.9) which is equal to 32.4 °C green canopy and 9.0 to 11.1 mm/day evapotranspiration. Non-stressed baseline or lower baseline (Tc-Ta = -2.4662VPD + 9.15; R2 = 0.97**) showed that CWSI threshold value was 0.75 which is equal to 24.3 °C (23.7 to 26.1 °C) Tc under supplemental irrigation and 23.3 to 24.7 °C under water stress conditions. Additionally, CWSI threshold was equal to 7.3 mm/day evapotranspiration and 5.02 kPa VPD. On the other hand, results revealed that when Tc exceeded 25 °C, biological yield, thousand kernel weight (TKW) decreased significantly, followed by grain yield in different barley genotypes. The slope of the CWSI calibration equation (Tc-Ta = -2.4662VPD + 9.15) is often more negative in hot and dry areas, and tends to zero in cold and humid areas. Therefore, its negativity indicates the conditions of moisture stress for barley genotypes in the dryland phase. The CWSI threshold for barley genotypes growth stages happened at 248 (6th June) days from sowing time (4th – 7th October) which is equal to flowering stage (ZGS60). According to CWSI quantity, Ansar, ChiCm/An57//Albert, Sahand/C-25041and Ste/Antares//YEA762 were grouped in the tolerance class under stress (dryland) conditions. However, Abidar, Sahand/C-25041, GaraArpa, ChiCm/An57//Albert and Makooei were placed in the tolerance class under non-stress (supplemental irrigation) conditions.
The CWSI could estimate the intensity of heat and water stresses in the grain filling stage for barley genotypes in cold and semi-arid areas. The average of canopy temperature threshold values were 24.8 and 24.0 °C for dryland barley genotypes in supplemental irrigation and dryland conditions, respectively. In addition, these indices could be used to estimate heat and water stress tolerance levels for barley genotypes.