عنوان مقاله [English]
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) is an annual and herbaceous plant, with a vertical, round, narrow and branched stem, with a height of approximately 30-60 cm. This plant belongs to the Apiaceae family. This family is known for having plants with aromatic taste. Iran and some countries along the Mediterranean Sea are known as the primary origin for the cumin plant. In addition to Iran, cumin is cultivated in many countries such as Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Turkey, Morocco, India, Syria, Mexico and Chile. About 300,000 tons of cumin seeds are produced in the world annually, of which China and Asian countries produce 70% and consume 90%. Short growing season (100 to 120 days), low water requirement and the possibility of rained cultivation, non-interference between cultivation and harvesting with other crops and no price fluctuation and proper economic justification are among the factors that interest farmers in cultivating this plant. In different regions, yields of 350 to more than 1000 kg of seeds are obtained from this plant, and 3350 cubic meters of pure water are needed for production.
Materials and Methods
This research was conducted in 2015 to 2017. The first year of the study included the collection and analysis of long-term climatic data of the region, and the second year included the implementation phase of the research. Analyzing meteorological data on the scale of decades and the cases of temperature, precipitation, wind speed, sunshine hours, relative humidity and evaporation from the pan were considered as criteria and by preparing the gradient equations, the rate of reference evaporation and transpiration was calculated. The required statistical information was obtained from 28 synoptic meteorological and climatology stations in Isfahan and some neighboring provinces. In the studies related to soil, apparent specific gravity and volumetric moisture content (field capacity and wilting point), soil salinity, soil texture and agricultural ability class of land in cultivation areas were considered. Soil-related information was used to calculate the soil evaporation coefficient (Ke), which describes the evaporation component in the trait (ETc). In fact, Ke is the basis for calculating the coefficient of reduction of evaporation from the surface layer (Kr) and the fraction of soil wet and exposed to air (few), and for its calculation, the presence of information related to soil characteristics is necessary. To calculate the soil characteristics, in addition to sampling from the fields in the research, the database of 1600 soil profiles in the soil and water research department of Isfahan province was also used.
Results and Discussion
The results showed that 18 cities in Isfahan province had cumin cultivation potential, which had a significant difference in terms of pure water requirement per hectare (5% level) and water consumption at different phenological stages (1% statistical level). In terms of water requirement per hectare, the cities of Isfahan province can be divided into three groups. Average water requirement per hectare in the first group (the cities of Golpayegan, Lenjan, Tiran and Karvan, Shahin and Shahr and Mime), the second group (the cities of Isfahan, Khomeini Shahr, Falavarjan, Shahreza, Kashan, Najaf Abad, Natanz), Mobarake, Dehaghan and Borkhar), and the third group (Aran and Bidgol, Ardestan, Khoor and Biabanak and Nain) were equal to 3000, 3240 and 3770 m-3 ha-1, respectively. The water requirement of the growth development stage in the cities of the third group was equal to 2029 m-3 ha-1, which was significantly different from the cities of the first and second groups (p < 1% level). According to the results, cumin might be a suitable plant for crop rotations in Isfahan province due to its low water requirement and tolerance to moisture stress.
The water requirement for cultivating cumin in various regions of the province is notably lower compared to many common crops, such as wheat, barley, and safflower. In 10 out of the 18 cities included in the study, significant water savings of up to 3,240 cubic meters per hectare can be achieved by optimizing water transfer efficiency. For cumin cultivation, this water conservation can even reach 3,000 cubic meters in cities with cooler climates. Surprisingly, in the hot areas of Isfahan province, including Ardestan, Nain, Khoor, Biabanak, Aran, and Bidgol, it is feasible to grow cumin with a water consumption of just 3,770 cubic meters per hectare.