محاسبه تبخیر (مرحله اول و دوم) از خاک شور بدون پوشش

نوع مقاله : مقالات پژوهشی

نویسندگان

دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد

چکیده

با توجه به شرایط اقلیمی خشک و نیمه خشک ایران و کمبود منابع آب، تبخیر عامل مهمی در برنامه ریزی و مدیریت آب کشاورزی است که به دلیل دشواری اندازه‌گیری، تخمین آن ضروری می‌باشد. تبخیر از خاک، علاوه بر تلفات آب و منابع آبی، باعث شور شدن خاک نیز می‌شود، این اتفاق در مناطق خشک و نیمه خشک که باران اندک و آب آبیاری شور دارند، بیشتر اتفاق می‌افتد. این پژوهش در دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با سه تکرار انجام شد. تیمارهای اعمال شده شامل بافت خاک، در سه سطح (شن لومی، لوم شنی، رس شنی) و چهار سطح شوری (7/0، 2، 4 و 8 دسی زیمنس بر متر) بودند. افزایش شوری در خاک، تبخیر (مرحله ی اول و دوم) را در هر سه بافت مورد پژوهش، کاهش داد (با افزایش شوری از 7/0 به 8، میران تبخیر از خاک رسی شنی 9/15%، از خاک شن لومی 4/11% و در خاک خاک لوم شنی 8/37%). با افزایش شوری در بافت رس شنی، تخمین مرحله اول و دوم تبخیر بهبود پیدا کرده (میانگین ریشه ی دوم خطا-RMSE- برای شوری 7/0 به 8، از 81/0 به 28/0) اما با افزایش شوری در بافت شن لومی (RMSE از 75/0 به 83/0)، تخمین مرحله‌ی اول و دوم تبخیر افت کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Computation of Evaporation (Stages 1 and 2) from a Bare Saline Soil

نویسندگان [English]

  • mahdi selahvarzi
  • B. Ghahraman
  • H. Ansari
  • K. Davari
Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
چکیده [English]

Introduction: Evaporation takes place from vegetation cover, from bare soil, or water bodies. In the absence of a vegetation cover, soil surface is exposed to atmosphere which increases the rate of evaporation. Evaporation of soil moisture will not only lead to water losses but also increase the risk of soil salinity. The risk is increased under low annual rainfall, saline irrigation water and deep water table. Soil and water salinity is common in arid and semiarid regions where using saline water is common under insufficient fresh water resources. Evaporation is one of the main components of water balance in each region and also one of the key factors for proper irrigation scheduling towards improving efficiency in the region. On the other hand evaporation has a significant role in global climate through the hydrological cycle and its proper estimation is important to predict crop yield soil salinity, water loss of irrigation canals, water structure and also on natural disasters such as drought phenomenon. There are three distinct phases for evaporation process. Step Rate – initial stage is when the soil reaches enough moisture to transfer water to evaporate at a rate proportional to the evaporative demand. During this stage, the evaporation rate by external weather conditions (solar radiation, wind, temperature, humidity, etc.) is limited and therefore can be controlled, in other words, the role of soil characteristics will occur. In this case the air phase - control (at this stage the stage profile – control). Next step is to reduce the rate of evaporation rates during this stage of succession is less than the potential rate (evaporation, atmospheric variability). At this point, evaporation rate (the rate at which the soil caused by the drying up) can deliver the level of moisture evaporation in the area is limited and controlled. So it can be a half step - called control. This may be longer than the first stage.. Apparently when the soil surface is dry to the extent that, it is effectively cut off from water, this phase starts. This stage is often called vapor diffusion process where the surface layer so as to be able to dry quickly can be important.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to test the texture of sandy clay and four salinity levels (0.7, 2, 4 and 8 dS m-1 (the study used a PVC pipe with a diameter of 110 mm and a height of about 1 m (for the 90 cm soil profile). Evaporation measurements and weight measurements were performed using a water balance. Also the water out of the soil columns were carefully measured. Weight was measured in soil columns has been done with a digital scale with an accuracy of 5 g. The calculation of evaporation ,obtained by subtracting the weight of the soil column twice in a row, low weight and water out of the soil column.
Results and Discussion: Evaporation decreased with increasing salinity of the soil, even in the first stage mentioned earlier by external meteorological conditions (eg, radiation, wind, temperature and humidity) controlled, observed. It should be recognized that the ability of the atmosphere to evaporate completely independent of the properties of the object that is no evaporation occurs. Moreover, if we assume that the object is completely independent of the properties of water surface evaporation exactly equals, salinity reduced the water vapor pressure resulting in reduced evaporates. The first stage of evaporation decreases by increasing salinity, evaporation would be justified.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Estimation
  • Salt Water
  • Stages evaporation
  • Water Resources
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